Frameworks for implementing nexus thinking, however, have failed to explicitly or adequately incorporate sustainable livelihoods perspectives.
This is counterintuitive given that livelihoods are key to achieving sustainable development. In this paper we present a critical review of nexus approaches and identify potential linkages with sustainable livelihoods theory and practice, to deepen our understanding of the interrelated dynamics between human populations and the natural environment. The outcome is an integrated framework with the capacity to measure and monitor environmental livelihood security of whole systems by accounting for the water, energy and food requisites for livelihoods at multiple spatial scales and institutional levels.
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Recognizing that the existing literature of frugal energy innovations is very limited, future work on analyzing them could be well motivated, as these may include new information on frugality and functionality of technologies. Energy may also indirectly be present in other fields such as in agriculture or telecommunications, which could offer interesting implications for energy frugality, and may thus also deserve a closer look. Numminen S. Global Challenges , 1 : 9— National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Journal List Glob Chall v. Glob Chall. Published online Sep Sini Numminen 1 and Peter D. Lund 1. Peter D. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Sini Numminen, Email: if. Corresponding author. Introduction Energy is a necessity for progress and a better living standard, and it is crucial for human wellbeing UN Table 1 Four cases of energy services defined as frugal innovations in literature.
Based on the cooling effect of water evaporation Praceus Food storage Lower product price than electric fridges. Frugal energy use: no maintenance costs and zero energy consumption. Food preparations Business: Networked energy business model for sales and customer support in Indian villages Urpelainen and Yoon Local company. Open in a separate window.
Needed is a PET bottle, water and some fastening materials Minimal costs. Local manufacturing possible without advanced skills or tools. Certain parts, such as wooden blades, can be made of locally available materials Affordable electricity. Table 3 Examples of frugally designed biomass stoves. Claddings made of leftover metal parts from large industries Significant savings in household biomass expenditure compared to open fire.
Figure 1. Analysis of potential frugal energy innovations We found in existing literature a few technological innovations in the energy sector that were defined as frugal innovations by the authors. Figure 2. Figure 3. Table 4 Criteria for frugal and sustainable technologies providing energy services.
Discussion and Conclusions Frugal innovations try to overcome the poverty gap by providing affordable products and services for people in developing countries and emerging economies. Conflict of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. Notes Numminen S.
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